Italian Sparrows (Passer italiae) breeding in black kite(Milvus migrans) nests


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ltalian Sparrows were found breeding in Black Kite nests in a woodland in Centralltaly. The sparrows usually bred only in active raptor nests and their reproductive cycle seemed to be synchronized with that of the kites, the highest number of sparrow broods occurring when the raptor nests were occupied by the chicks. The adult sparrows were seen feeding in the raptor platforms when adult kites were away.