Umbrella pine seeds selection by Hooded Crow,  Corvus corone cornix

GUSTIN M. and SORACE A.

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Abstract:

Probably the Hooded Crow selects longer and heavier pine-seeds to obtain bigger endosperms or to select the full pine-seeds. The old valve absence among the pine-seeds opened by the Hooded Crow also confirms the latter hypothesis.Smaller pine-seeds having a more elongated shape are opened on anvils, maybe because they are more difficult to break open, but the different techniques used to open pine-seeds on the ground and anvils stili need further study.