Spatial distribution of a Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis population from Lagiewnicki Forest (Lodz – Central Poland)

Nowakowski J. J.



Abstract:

Spatial distribution of a population the Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis in Lagiewnicki Forest, a wooded area close to Lodz city interested by increasing urbanization was studied. Nearest neighbour distances, population density, “mean crowding” and distribution of territories in relation to the edge of forest were analysed. Population density at the town edge was four titnes lower than that at cultivated fields edge. Frequency distribution of square roots of the nearest neighbour distances was positively and significantly skewed (a3 = 0.81), suggesting a clumped distribution. The centres of singing males territories of were on average 260 m apart. The distances between the territories and the forest edge bordering cultivated fields were positively skewed (a3 = 0.85), whilst the distances between territories and the town edge were significantly and negatively skewed (a3 = 0.42).